Brooks, E. (1994). Japanese Popular Culture in the Classroom. National Clearinghouse for U.S. – Japan Studies, Indiana University. Retrieved April 1, 2003 from


        This site provides information on the manga art form and as a graphic novel.  The article includes information on how Japan schools are using manga in their classrooms and some advantages that it holds.  The author describes the Japanese culture and the reason why popular culture is used in the classroom.  She describes the different types of manga such as political cartoons and graphic novels.  The article also discusses Japanese anime. 


Bruggeman, L. (1997). ‘Zap! Whoosh Kerplow!’: Build High-Quality Graphic Novel Collections with Impact. School Library Journal, 43(1), 22-28.


        This article is written by a school librarian who has developed her graphic novel collection and she provides information on how to do this with other library collections.  The author says that there are seven steps to a graphic novel collection.  Some of the first steps are to get to know the manager in a local comic book store and to get to know the publishers and review sources.  She suggests ways to buy, catalog, and also promote the books for the community to know they are there. The last step is to let the patrons at the collection.   


Gorman, M. (2002). What Teens Want. School Library Journal, 48(8), 42-46.


        This journal article provides information to librarians who are unfamiliar with the graphic novel.  The article covers information on building a collection of graphic novels, catering to the community, cataloging, displaying and circulating graphic novels, and information on how to choose and order graphic novels.  To start to build a collection the author recommends that you consider the cover art and to choose graphic novels with staying power.  The author also suggests that you should cater to your community by choosing non-controversial materials.  Some graphic novels can contain mature themes and are not appropriate for every audience.  In the cataloging section the author suggests that you look at your libraries policies for cataloging incoming materials.  The author also suggests that you help circulation of graphic novels by displaying them where young adults can view them easily and keep them all together on the shelf. 


Graphic Attraction. (2003). Library Journal, 128(5) (Suppl), 54.


        Michelle Gorman, a Wired for Youth Librarian at the Austin Public Library, is one of the leaders in the pursuit of making the library cool for teens.  Ms. Gorman believes that the library does not provide enough services for young adults.  She thinks that using graphic novels is a great way to teach things like foreshadowing and satire.  She strives to make the library a kind of place that young adults would like to be.


McDonald, H. (2002). The Year of the Graphic Novel. Publishers Weekly, 249(51), 21-24.


This article goes over the sales for the year 2001 in graphic novels.  The companies that publish comic books were near bankruptcy when the graphic novel industry exploded.  The companies contribute this trend to the interest in comic book figures in movies.  This started with the release of Spiderman in theaters.  The graphic novel sales for those books that included Spiderman have jumped since that time.  The companies also contribute sales to librarians.  The comment is made by the author that librarians are good at recognizing new trends for young readers.  The ALA’s Teen Read Week was also acknowledged.  The comic book publishers expect that with the release of other movies involving comic book characters, the sales will continue to grow.


NMP International. (1998). A History of Manga. Retrieved April 1, 2003, from


        This site provides information on Manga, a Japanese comic book form.  It gives information on the medium such as the artists, the cost of the books, and some of the publishing companies that provide the books.  It also gives information on the marketing of manga, some characteristics, and some terms that the Americans may not be familiar with.  It also gives information on trends in manga.  This is a good site for those who are unfamiliar with manga.


No Flying No Tights. (2003). Retrieved April 1, 2003, from


This site includes information on graphic novels.  It has the latest reviews of new material done by the staff at the website.  It includes news and gossip, a book of the month column, and reviews sorted by genre.  There is an index of publishers, creators, and titles.  It also includes information on the staff that runs the website.  It also includes definitions of the different kinds of graphic novels.


Graphic Novels. (2003). Richmond Public Library Retieved April 1, 2003, from


        This site provides information on graphic novels.  It has information on what a graphic novel is, the history of the graphic novel, and the best way to read a graphic novel.  It has links to a review site for graphic novels and a words and pictures virtual museum.  The site has picture of popular graphic novel characters including Spiderman.  The website is primarily designed for young adult use.


Schwarz, G. E. (2002). Graphic Novels for Multiple Literacies. Journal of Adolecent and Adult Literacy, 46(3), 262-266.


This article provides information on the benefits of using graphic novels in curriculum.  The author defines the different kinds of genres of the graphic novel.  These can include Human Interest, Manga, Nonfiction, Adaptations, and Satire.  It is suggested in the article that reading graphic novels requires more cognitive skills from students than reading just text.  The graphic novel can also help students learn about different mediums such as color and realism in the pictures can affect the story.  Some graphic novels can tell history and help students to visualize what actually happened. 


St. Lifer, E. (2002). Graphic Novels, Seriously. School Library Journal, 48(8), 9.


This article talks about the importance of graphic novels to the library and the community.  The article mentions a library that started collecting comic books in order to draw teenage boys into the library.  The library saw the circulation grow forty percent in one year.  Although gender is an issue with graphic novels, manga, a form of Japanese graphic novels, has defied this by bringing graphic novels to females.  The article also talks about the genres of the graphic novels and how they have broadened to include nonfiction and biographies. 


Weiner, S. (2002). Beyond Superheroes: Comics Get Serious. Library Journal, 127(2), 55-59.


        This article tells a brief history of the graphic novel.  It includes definitions of the types of graphic novels that include The Superhero Story, Human Interest Story, and Manga.  The author also gives an idea of what the graphic novel has become in the world of books and a libraries collection.  In the article there is a section on selecting graphic novels.  The author notes that many graphic novels are now reviewed in many of the library trade journals.  There are also bibliographies that will help in the selection process.  There is also a section on how to catalog the graphic novel collection in the library.  This article includes a bibliography of graphic novels that include sections on art, series, single volumes, and some web resources that will help in choosing graphic novels.


Wolk, D., & Reid, C. (2002). Graphic Novels Feel the Love. Publishers Weekly, 249(20), 26-38.


        This article relays information on the trend of library’s buying graphic novels.  Although the comic book industry’s sales have gone done in the past few years, graphic novels have become more popular with librarians.  The author claims that the reason librarians like graphic novels is it gets young boys into the library and reading.  Manga, a type of graphic novel from Japan, is one of the favorites among librarians and their patrons.  The article also talks about the bankruptcy of LPC, one of the leading comic book publishers.